Archive | travanj 23rd, 2021

23 travanj 2021 ~ 2 Comments

Why Capitalism Cannot Stay

After my recent presentation on the first Croatian streaming TV, one viewer wrote about my judgment about the expected disappearance of capitalism from the globalized species Homo sapiens. “Wise, but a departure from reality, because capital will never abdicate, and money governs globalism, and how to dismantle it?”

In my opinion, one should not wait for the renunciation of power or the abdication of capital. Capitalism needs to be removed. In this essay, I will endeavour to explain why it is not only possible but also inevitable to remove capitalism as an approach to the ordering of human living communities and our entire species.

What is capitalism? Capitalism is the present and I hope the ultimate model of civilization. Civilization is a way of governing living communities, according to which (1) power is separated from the community, (2) common property is taken away from the community and privatized, and (3) power is tied to private property. Private property has for long consisted of real estate and their geographical location, as well as the forced labour of subjects who were formerly members of the community. In capitalism as the present model of civilization, power is tied to free world capital, which has accumulated in the West since the Renaissance.

Where and how did Western capital accumulate? The first capital that did not dissipate over time was accumulated in Genoa during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In that first round of capital accumulation, Genoa enjoyed the external protection of the Habsburg lineage, which had estates spread across Europe and a vast world colonial empire. After the weakening of the Habsburgs, the second round of capital accumulation took place in the Netherlands, into which the accumulated Genoese capital also merged. Dutch capital enjoyed the internal protection of the United Dutch Provinces, which overthrew the Habsburgs in 1588. The Netherlands has been the undisputed mistress of the world for a century. [The weakening of the Netherlands began with the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia, which was arranged by the Netherlands itself, because in the previous Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) it was without a European market for its colonial goods. After 1648, for the sake of peace, absolutism was introduced, which was the opposite of the “open society” of the Netherlands and mercantilism, which was the opposite of liberal capitalism and which consisted in the closure of production processes within state borders and in the balance of trade between countries. At the time of mercantilism, the market was under the control of (absolutist) state authorities. In addition, the overseas colonial systems of European states were separated and closed monopolies.]

The third round of capital accumulation took place during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in England, into which Dutch capital eventually merged, as capital in England produced better. In the English case, the kingdom was a means of capital, which provided protection to the kingdom. (This was shown by the founding of the Bank of England in 1694.) In the first two rounds, capital was accumulated through trade and the plunder of other people’s wealth, including the plunder of people, who were traded as slaves. In the English round, capital was also accumulated by industrial production in the nineteenth century, but up to the middle of that century Britain had protected its expensive agricultural production by closing the food market.

After the “unification” of the United States in the bloody Civil War (1861-1865), capital began to accumulate strongly in the United States through the use of domestic natural resources, the development of technology and industrial production, but without foreign trade and without plundering other people’s wealth. The United States had isolated its economy: there were no imports of finished products, but it was abundantly receiving foreign capital, which flowed profusely from England. Thus, the combination of capital and the American state, on the one hand, enabled a strong accumulation of capital, and on the other hand, before the First World War, the United States became the strongest political, economic and military power in the world. A novelty in the fourth, American round of capital accumulation was the use of money as a commodity rather than as a medium of exchange. Apart from money, nature and people have become commodities on the market. Capital in the United States – as it was earlier in the Netherlands and England – had internal protection. In the US, capital was originally accumulated in the areas of finance, transportation and communications (banks, railways, telegraph, and telephone) and in the areas of entertainment (photography, film, Hollywood, Broadway).

Along with the rise of the United States, there was a strengthening of the economy, politics and military power in Germany and Japan, according to the American template: restriction of imports, development of technology, industrialization and the creation of cartels. On the eve of World War I, German industrial production was equal to the total industrial production of Britain and France. Atlantic capital could not come to terms with such a development in Europe, so it pushed the whole of Europe into war. World War I was the result of the use of states or politics for capital gains. Wall Street gave war loans to warring countries. (The answer to nineteenth-century British liberalism was twofold: Bismarck’s economic nationalism and Marxism, which later moved from Germany to Russia.)

The purpose of capital accumulation is not to increase the personal or family consumption of capitalists or people who gather capital. The purposes of excessive capital accumulation are to establish and strengthen political power. By the end of the nineteenth century, capital was sufficient to rule separately the peoples in their historical states. At the beginning of the twentieth century, so much capital had accumulated in the United States that American capitalists had sought to rule the world or the entire species of Homo sapiens.

In short, the centuries-old process of capital accumulation in the West shows the close connection between capital accumulation and the use of state. Until the outbreak of World War I, capital has controlled nation-states, and after that war, the United States sought to rule the world through the export of capital and American democracy, and through the League of Nations. (Capital pursued the ideological uniformation of the world.) This was successfully opposed by France and Britain as victors of the war and as colonial powers. In addition, the Great October Revolution was carried out in Russia. The economic crisis created by the war and the subsequent Great Depression triggered in the USA by financial speculations of free capital caused a series of nationalist revolutions in Europe. By June 1940, almost all of Europe was under the regimes of National Socialism, fascism, or corporatism. (The answers to earlier Dutch capitalism were absolutism and mercantilism.)

The then emergence of economic and political systems that opposed capitalism was the result of uneven economic development, which capitalism created by the arbitrary use of accumulated capital. (Capital accumulates better by warming developed markets than by expanding the sale of products in less developed markets.) Capitalism has hit individual people and nations with spatially uneven development. In Russia, capital was opposed by the working class, and in the rest of Europe – with the exception of Britain – capital was opposed by nations. Between the world wars, the world was torn by three ideologies: liberalism, communism, and National Socialism. Until then, ideologies did not play a crucial role, because the entire West was “Christian.” The ideology of the Third Reich and the immature, ideologized German geopolitics of the time led the Third Reich to attack the Soviet Union, with which the Reich had been an ally until that attack. If that attack had not taken place, the world today would look different politically.

World capital accumulated in the United States sought to rule the world after World War II, again through the export of capital and democracy, but also through the use of world political and financial institutions: the UN, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the aborted International Trade Organization (ITO), which was established in 1995 as the World Trade Organization (WTO). The implementation of this idea was prevented by the Soviet Union, which “carried out” socialist revolutions in Eastern Europe and in China, Mongolia, North Korea and Vietnam. The American state was the strongest state in the world, but it was too weak to help capital establish world power. From the Great October Revolution until the end of the Cold War, capitalism had an alternative in socialism, in which capital belonged to the people, the state, or the working class.

After the Cold War, capital harnessed the United States to establish its world hegemony, but that hegemony lasted only about ten years. The new political reality arose from the renewal of national power in Russia (1999) and China’s entry into the world economic stage and its accession to the World Trade Organization (2001). American capital began to flow into China, not as financial but as industrial capital, which became tied to “labour and space.” (In four Western rounds of capital accumulation, financial capital or cash flowed from one country to another.) Along with China and Russia, other countries followed the path of economic nationalism: Iran, Turkey, India, Japan, Vietnam, Israel, South Korea, Saudi Arabia and other Asian countries and many countries in Africa and Latin America. A new alternative to liberal capitalism is being created, but capitalism does not tolerate alternative political systems.

I will emphasize that in today’s globalized world, the alternative to liberal capitalism is neither workers’ nor National Socialism, but a new alternative, which I call politism. Politism is an approach to the organization of the state, according to which politics or the performance of the collective work of the people or the living community takes precedence over narrow economic gains, over protection and over ideology. Capital already gradually hands over to the peoples their states, which it has so far controlled. What kind of countries will Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, Libya and other countries become, after the world capital has unsuccessfully tried to “build” in them its own regimes? Which way will go the European Union, in which liberal capitalism has created ruin? What kind of political system will Croatia set up if it does not want a complete replacement of population in it? This is the case in many countries around the world. I will emphasize that capital, by promoting consumption and advocating the greatest possible economic growth, has created general debt slavery of states, peoples, corporations, financial institutions, families and individuals. States are in debt and are powerless to help their populace. However, in our species the awareness that the world cannot last long in the present way is rapidly spreading.

In a world where many states have already shown disobedience, capital will increasingly lose power over the species. Capital could preserve its power only if it established a unitary world state, in which a single political system would be established, a single military force that can only be legally used by free capital and the ideology of liberalism as the only system of belief. This cannot happen, because there are sovereign nations, which do not intend to give up their states, and because belief systems are not bought from catalogues, but are created by evolution in historical nations, many of which last for millennia. Fewer and fewer people are reluctant to take the “fast food” of world capital. Capitalism will be seriously endangered when states limit the freedom of capital and when capital begins to be tied to space and labour.

The first deadly means of capitalism were the mighty concentration of capital and the freedom of its circulation. Therefore, the species should scatter capital on countries and peoples and tie it to the Earth and life on it. Another means of capitalism is the free world market. State market surveillance is undesirable for capital, because the free sale of attractive and heavily promoted products and services drains capital from local markets and piles it in places from where production is credited, which is also exploited and indebted. Earnings from sales in local markets are finally flowing into the treasury of free world capital. With the existence of a global free market, it is difficult to accumulate capital in local markets. They may increase employment, but the employment of low-paid workers is not a means of capital accumulation. Did not Western countries in which capital had accumulated fully control their markets for capital accumulation, and did not many of them establish colonial monopolies? By taking control of their own markets, nations will seriously threaten capitalism. Trade agreements can be made by states as well, not just by private corporations.

The third deadly means of capitalism was the choice of technology. Capital decided in which industries the technology would develop. The purpose of investing in technology has always been the same: to create new products and services that will enable (excessive) economic growth and a particularly strong additional accumulation of free capital. In the West, capital has been invested in digital technology in recent decades, which has made it possible to create private or „social“ networks, which are used for entertainment and for the exchange of unnecessary information, often harmful to people. In contrast to the West, China has invested huge capital in creating green technology for the exploitation of renewable energy sources. (In China, 5G digital networks with built-in artificial intelligence are also used to combat the corona virus pandemic and to do daily family, corporate and public work. Homo sapiens are crying out for new technology to stop the decay of the Earth and life on it. Nations will tame free capital and remove capitalism and by taking control of the development and of the use of technology that is not created by capital, but by people with their knowledge and invention.

One of the devastating consequences of great accumulation and complete freedom of capital is the unequal distribution of income and wealth among nations and within nations. The freedom and arbitrariness of capital reveal the racism of capital. Countries with developed markets are one realm, and countries rich in natural treasures are another. Well-paid professionals, entertainers, or athletes through whom free capital accumulates in all nations are one thing, and the other are poorly paid workers who, with their meagre income, create little demand in the market. Divisions among nations and within nations have made the world an unprotected and dangerous place. Fairness is not a superfluous word. Fairness in education, business, investment and rewarding knowledge and work makes the world more peaceful and the species more protected. Capital will have to accept fairness in its relationship with the species, which is globalized and which of small human forces can create a strong and threatening collective life force.

Homo sapiens need a cleaner and tidier Earth. It needs more life in and around itself or in the biome. The species urgently needs to stop the deterioration of climate and to start its improvement. Meeting these needs of the species should replace the demands of capital, which goes only for economic growth and further self-multiplication. The species and its peoples need to tame capital and make it responsible. Capital should not be tied only to space and work, but also to the Earth, life on it and the climate. Tied capital is good and useful capital. Free capital is evil. Freedom of capital is slavery of our species. The species needs to shake off free capital, and capitalism needs to be removed, in order to improve health in it and to bring life back to it. The globalized species has a great life force. Enough awe of capital!

The corona virus pandemic has exacerbated the survival of Homo sapiens. (A strain of corona virus has recently emerged in India, which has undergone three simultaneous mutations. In the United States, in a retirement home, residents were recently infected, even though they were already vaccinated, apparently earlier this year. The infection was brought in by an unvaccinated home employee.) The species Coronavirinae could overpower the species Homo sapiens and remove it from the Earth. Therefore, our species needs to defend itself against the onslaught of viruses, but capitalism is not a political and economic system from which the species could oppose pandemics. Capitalism multiplied our species, drove it into huge multimillion cities (Tokyo, Mumbai, Mexico City), and squeezed people alongside animals that carry viruses but are resistant to them.

The species will have to invest huge sums of money in fighting pandemics, in the search for vaccines and drugs, in people’s life knowledge, in educating people to coexist with viruses, in science and new technology, and in producing new goods needed by the health system and health workers. The species will have to create a world health system. Now our species, nations, and states are debtors, and capitalists are creditors. Such a relationship is unacceptable for the species. Therefore, all free capital should be tied to the species, peoples, nation-states and health of people. The corona virus pandemic has shown that capitalism has betrayed the species, because capital does not want and cannot take responsibility for the Earth, life and our species. Capitalism has plundered the species, and the species now really needs money. The accumulated private money should either be taken by tax from the capitalists or should be devalued by the constant state issue of money for the needs of the Earth and life. (Such a measure was implemented in France in 1945 and 1946, when the government confiscated the properties and businesses of Nazi collaborators and repaid all domestic debts with excessively printed money.) The species is at war and will be at war with the virus for a long time, so it must have a war tax system.

In summary, nation states can and must (1) prevent the possibility of further accumulation of private capital, (2) deprive capital of freedom of circulation, (3) take freedom of the world market, (4) take over the development of technology and the establishment of new, clean energy and industry, ( 5) decisively reduce the differences in income and wealth of peoples and within peoples and (6) to invest enormous wealth in cleansing the Earth, rebuilding life on it, improving the climate and restoring the physical and mental health of people. Thus, as the mentioned listener would say, capitalism could be “dismantled”. The species has no other solution. Either capitalism or species!

The transition of our globalized species from capitalism as a model of civilizations to politism as a model of community is calculated on the self-protection of the species, and will be a process of the adaptation of the species to the circumstances it created under the compulsion of capital. The species is primarily faced with the task of improving the current life-threatening circumstances.

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23 travanj 2021 ~ 0 Comments

Zašto kapitalizam ne može ostati

Nakon mojega nedavnog izlaganja na prvoj hrvatskoj „izljevnoj“ televiziji (streaming tv) jedna je gledateljica na moju prosudbu o očekivanom nestanku kapitalizma iz globalizirane vrste Homo sapiens napisala. „Mudro, ali odmak od stvarnosti, jer kapital nikad neće abdicirati, a novac upravlja globalizmom i kako to razmontirati?“

Po mojem uviđanju, ne treba čekati odreknuće od vlasti ili abdikaciju kapitala. Kapitalizam treba ukloniti. U ovom ću sastavku nastojati pojasniti to, zašto je ne samo moguće, nego i neizbježno uklanjanje kapitalizma kao pristupa uređenju čovjekovih životnih zajednica i naše cijele vrste.

Što je kapitalizam? Kapitalizam je sadašnji i nadam se krajnji uzorak civilizacije. Civilizacija je način vladanja životnim zajednicama, po kojemu je (1) vlast izdvojena iz zajednice, (2) zajednička imovina oteta zajednici i privatizirana, te (3) vlast vezana uz privatnu imovinu. Privatna imovina se dugo sastojala od nekretnina i od njihova zemljopisnog položaja te od prisilnog rada podanika, koji su prije bili pripadnici zajednice. U kapitalizmu kao sadašnjem uzorku civilizacije vlast je vezana uz slobodan svjetski kapital, koji se na Zapadu nakupljao od Renesanse.

Gdje se i kako se nakupljao zapadni kapital? Prvi kapital koji se s vremenom nije rasuo bio je nakupljen u Genovi tijekom petnaestog i šesnaestog stoljeća. U tom prvomkolu nakupljanja kapitala Genova je uživala vanjsku zaštitu loze Habsburga, koja je imala posjede raspoređene diljem Europe i golemo svjetsko kolonijalno carstvo. Poslije slabljenja Habsburga drugo kolo nakupljanja kapitala zbivalo se u Nizozemskoj, u koju se slio i nakupljeni đenovski kapital. Nizozemski kapital uživao je unutarnju zaštitu Ujedinjenih Nizozemskih Pokrajina, koje su zbacile vlast Habsburga 1588. godine. Nizozemska je cijelo stoljeće bila neospornom gospodaricom svijeta. [Slabljenje Nizozemske počelo je sklapanjem Vestfalijskog mira, koji je upriličila upravo Nizozemska, jer je ona u prethodnom Tridesetogodišnjem ratu (1618.-1648.) bila bez europskog tržišta za svoju kolonijalnu robu. Poslije 1648. godine za potrebe mira uvedeni su apsolutizam, koji je bio opreka „otvorenom društvu“ koje je imala Nizozemska i merkantilizam, koji je bio opreka liberalnom kapitalizmu te koji se očitovao u zatvaranju proizvodnih postupaka u državne granice i u ravnoteži robne razmjene među zemljama. U vrijeme merkantilizma tržište je bilo pod nadzorom (apsolutističkih) državnih vlasti. Usto, prekooceanski kolonijalni sustavi europskih država bili su međusono razlučeni i zatvoreni monopoli.]

Treće kolo nakupljanja kapitala teklo je tijekom osamnaestog i devetnaestog stoljeća u Engleskoj, u koju se s vremenom slio i nizozemski kapital, jer se kapital u Engleskoj bolje plodio. U engleskom slučaju kraljevina je bila sredstvo kapitala, koji je pružao zaštitu kraljevini. (To je pokazalo utemeljenje Banke Engleske 1694. godine.) U prva dva kola kapital se nakupljao trgovinom i pljačkom tuđeg bogatstva uključujući i otimanje ljudi, kojima se trgovalo kao robljem. U engleskom kolu kapital se u devetnaestom stoljeću nakupljao i industrijskom proizvodnjom, ali je do sredine tog stoljeća zatvaranjem tržišta hrane Britanija štitila svoju skupu poljoprivrednu proizvodnju.

Poslije „ujedinjenja“ SAD u krvavom Građanskom ratu (1861.-1865.) kapital se počeo snažno gomilati u SAD uporabom domaćih prirodnih izvora, razvitkom tehnologije i industrijske proizvodnje, ali bez vanjske trgovine i bez pljačke tuđeg bogatstva. SAD su bile izolirale svoje gospodarstvo: uvoza gotovih proizvoda nije bilo, ali je objeručke priman vanjski kapitala, koji se obilno slijevao iz Engleske. Tako je sprega kapitala i američke države, s jedne strane, omogućila snažno nakupljanje kapitala, a s druge su strane SAD prije Prvoga svjetskog rata postale najjačom političkom, gospodarskom i vojnom silom svijeta. Novost u četvrtom, američkom kolu nakupljanja kapitala bila je uporaba novca kao robe, a ne kao razmjenskog sredstva. Robom na tržištu osim novca postali su i priroda i ljudi. Kapital je u SAD – kao što je prije bilo i u Nizozemskoj i u Engleskoj – imao unutarnju zaštitu. U SAD kapital se prvobitno nakupljao u područjima financija, prijevoza i komunikacija (banke, željeznica, telegraf, telefon) te u području razbibrige (fotografija, film, Hollywood, Broadway).

Usporedo s usponom SAD došlo je i do jačanja gospodarstva, politike i vojne sile u Njemačkoj i u Japanu i to po amerčkom predlošku: ograničenje uvoza, razvitak tehnologije, industrijalizacija i stvaranje kartela. Uoči Prvoga svjetskog rata njemačka industrijska proizvodnja bila je jednaka ukupnoj industrijskoj proizvodnji Britanije i Francuske. Atlantski kapital se nije mogao pomiriti s takvim razvitkom u Europi pa je cijelu Europu gurnuo u rat. Prvi svjetski rat bio je rezultat uporabe država ili politike za probitke kapitala. Wall Street je zaraćenim zemljama davao ratne kredite. (Odgovor britanskom liberalizmu devetnaestog stoljeća bio je dvojak: Bismarckov gospodarski nacionalizam i marksizam, koji se kasnije iz Njemačke premjestio u Rusiju.)

Svrha nakupljanja kapitala nije povećanje osobne ili obiteljske potrošnje kapitalista ili ljudi koji nakupe kapital. Svrhe prekomjernog nakupljanja kapitala su uspostava i jaćanje političke vlasti. Kapitala je do kraja devetnaestog stoljeća bilo dovoljno da odvojeno vlada narodima u njihovim povijesnim državama. Početkom dvadesetog stoljeća u SAD se bilo nakupilo toliko kapitala, da su se američki kapitalisti bili odlučili zavladati svijetom ili cijelom vrstom Homo sapiens.

Ukratko, višestoljetni postupak nakupljanja kapitala na Zapadu pokazuje tijesnu spregu nakupljanja kapitala i uporabe države. Do početka Prvoga svjetskog rata kapital je nadzirao nacionalne države, a poslije tog rata SAD su nastojale zavladati svijetom putem izvoza kapitala i američke demokracije te putem Lige naroda. (Kapital je išao za ideološkim ujednačivanjem svijeta.) Tomu su se uspjelo usprotivile Francuska i Britanija kao pobjednice rata i kao kolonijalne sile. Usto, u Rusiji je izvedena Velika oktobarska revolucija. Gospodarska kriza koju je stvorio rat i kasnija Velika depresija koju su u SAD prouzročile financijske spekulacije slobodnog kapitala izazvale su niz nacionalističkih revolucija u Europi. Do lipnja 1940. godine gotova cijela Europa bila je pod režimima nacionalnog socijalizma, fašizma ili korporatizma. (Odgovor ranijem nizozemskom kapitalizmu bili su apsolutizam i merkantilizam.)

Tadašnja pojava gospodarskih i političkih sustava koji su opreka kapitalizmu bila je rezultat neujednačenoga gospodarskog razvitka, koji je kapitalizam stvorio proizvoljnom uporabom nakupljenog kapitala. (Kapital se bolje nakuplja zagrijavanjem razvijenih tržišta, nego širenjem prodaje proizvoda na manje razvijenim tržištima.) Kapitalizam je prostorno neujednačenim razvitkom pogodio i jedinačne ljude i narode. U Rusiji se kapitalu suprotstavio radnički stalež, a u ostatku Europe – izuzevši Britaniju – kapitalu su se suprotstavili narodi. Između svjetskih ratova svijet su razdirale tri ideologije: liberalizam, komunizam i nacionalni socijalizam. Dotad ideologije nisu igrale presudnu ulogu, jer je Zapad bio „kršćanski“. Ideologija Trećeg Reicha i nezrela, ideologizirana njemačka geopolitika tog vremena naveli su Treći Reich da napadne Sovjetski Savez, s kojim je do tog napada Reich bio saveznik. Da do tog napada nije došlo, danas bi svijet drukčije politički izgledao.

Svjetski kapital nakupljen u SAD nastojao je zavladati svijetom i poslije Drugoga svjetskog rata i to opet putem izvoza kapitala i demokracije, ali i uporabom svjetskih političkih i financijskih ustanova: UN, Svjetske banke, Međunarodnog monetarnog fonda i pobačene Međunarodne trgovinske organizacije (ITO), koja je istom 1995. godine uspostavljena kao Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO). Provedbu te zamisli spriječio je Sovjetski Savez, koji je „izveo“ socijalističke revolucije u Istočnoj Europi te u Kini, Mongoliji, Sjevernoj Koreji i Vijetnamu. Američka država bila je najjača država svijeta, ali je bila preslaba da kapitalu pomogne uspostaviti svjetsku vlast. Od Velike oktobarske revolucije do konca Hladnog rata kapitalizam je imao alternativu u socijalizmu, u kojemu je kapital pripadao narodu, državi ili radničkom staležu.

Poslije Hladnog rata kapital je upregnuo SAD u uspostavu svoje svjetske hegemonije, ali je ta hegemonija trajala samo desetak godina. Nova politička stvaranost nastala je obnovom nacionalne vlasti u Rusiji (1999.) te stupanjem Kine na svjetsku gospodarsku pozornicu i njezinim pristupanjem Svjetskoj trgovinskoj organizaciji (2001.).Usto, američki kapital se počeo prelijevati u Kinu, ali ne kao financijski, nego kao proizvodni kapital, koji je postao vezan uz „rad i prostor“. (U četiri zapadna kola nakupljanja kapitala iz jedne u drugu zemlju prelijevao se financijski kapital ili gotovina.) Uz Kinu i Rusiju i druge su zemlje u gospodarstvu pošle putem gospodarskom nacionalizma: Iran, Turska, Indija, Japan, Vijetnam, Izrael, Južna Koreja, Saudijska Arabija te druge zemlje Azije i mnoge zemlje u Africi i Latinskoj Americi. Stvara se nova alternativa liberalnom kapitalizmu, koji ne trpi alternativne političke sustave.

Naglasit ću da u današnje vrijeme u globaliziranom svijetu alternativa liberalnom kapitalizmu nisu ni radnički ni nacionalni socijalizam, nego nova alternativa, koju nazivam politizmom. Politizam je pristup uređenju države, po kojemu politika ili obavljanje skupnog posla naroda ili životne zajednice nosi prevagu nad uskim gospodarskim probitcima, nad zaštitom i nad ideologijom. Kapital već postupno prepušta narodima njihove države koje je dosad nadzirao. Kakvim će državama poslije potrebnog sređivanja postati Afganistan, Irak, Sirija, Jemen, Egipat, Libija i druge zemlje, u kojima je svjetski kapital izlišno nastojao „izgraditi“ svoje režime? Kojim putem će poći Europska unija, u kojoj je liberalni kapitalizam stvorio rasulo? Kakav će politički sustav postaviti Hrvatska, ako ne želi da u njoj dođe do potpune smjene pučanstva? Tako je u brojnim zemljama svijeta. Naglasit ću, da je kapital promicanjem potrošaštva i zagovaranjem najvećeg mogućeg gospodarskog rasta stvorio opće dužničko ropstvo država, naroda, korporacija, financijskih ustanova, obitelji i jedinačnih ljudi. Države su u dugovima i nemoćne su da pomognu svojem pučanstvu. Međutim, vrstom se širi svijest o tomu, da svijet na sadašnji način ne može dugo potrajati.

U svijetu u kojemu su brojne države već pokazale neposluh, kapital će sve brže gubiti vlast nad vrstom. Kapital bi tu vlast mogao sačuvati, samo ako bi uspostavio opću svjetsku državu, u kojoj bi bio uspostavljen jedinstven politički sustav, jedna vojna sila koju zakonito može rabiti samo slobodan kapital i ideologija liberalizma kao jedini sustav uvjerenja. Do toga ne može doći, jer postoje suvereni narodi, koji se ne kane odreći svojih država i jer se sustavi uvjerenja ne kupuju iz kataloga, nego nastaju evolucijom u povijesnim narodima, od kojih mnogi traju tisućljećima. Sve manje naroda nerado uzima „brzu hranu“ svjetskog kapitala. Kapitalizam će biti ozbiljno ugrožen kad države skuče slobodu kapitala i kad kapital počnu vezati uz prostor i rad.

Prvo ubojito sredstvo kapitalizma bili su silno usredotočenje kapitala i sloboda njegova kolanja. Stoga vrsta treba rasuti kapital na zemlje i narode te ga vezati uz Zemlju i život na njoj. Drugo sredstvo kapitalizma je slobodno svjetsko tržište. Kapitalu je nepoćudan državni nadzor tržišta, jer se slobodnom prodajom poželjnih i razglašenih proizvoda i usluga kapital odlijeva s mjesnih tržišta i gomila na mjestima s kojih se kreditira proizvodnja, koja je također iskorištavana i zadužena. Zarada od prodaje na mjesnim tržištima konačno se slijeva u riznicu slobodnoga svjetskog kapitala. Uz postojanje svjetskog slobodnog tržišta teško dolazi do nakupljanja kapitala na mjesnim tržištima. Na njima može doći do povećavanja zapošljananja, ali zaposlenost slabo plaćenih radnika nije sredstvo nakupljanja kapitala. Narodi od svojih država traže uspostavu nadzora nad vlastitim tržištima. Zar zapadne zemlje u kojima se bio nakupio kapital nisu za nakupljanja kapitala potpuno nadzirale svoja tržišta i zar mnoge od njih nisu uspostavljale kolonijalne monopole? Preuzimanjem nadzora nad vlastitim tržištima narodi će ozbiljno ugroziti kapitalizam. Trgovinske ugovore mogu sklapati i države, a ne samo privatne korporacije.

Treće ubojito sredstvo kapitalizma bio je izbor tehnologije. Kapital je odlučivao u kojim gospodarskim granama će se razvijati tehnologija. Svrha ulaganja u tehnologiju bila je uvijek ista: stvoriti nove proizvode i usluge koje će omogućiti (prekomjeran) gospodarski rast i posebno snažno dodatno nakupljanje slobodnog kapitala. Na Zapadu je u minulim desetljećima kapital bio ulagan u digitalnu tehnologiju, koja je omogućila stvaranje privatnih mreža, koje služe za razbibrigu i za razmjenu izlišnih obavijesti često i štetnih za ljude. Nasuprot Zapadu, Kina je uložila golem kapital u stvaranje zelene energetike putem iskorištavanja obnovljivih izvora energije. (U Kini se i digitalne mreže 5G s ugrađenom umjetnom inteligencijom rabe za suzbijanje pandemije koronavirusa i za obavljanje dnevnog obiteljskog, korporacijskog i javnog posla. Vrsta Homo sapiens vapi za novom tehnologijom, kojom će se zaustaviti propadanje Zemlje i života na njoj. Narodi će ukrotiti slobodan kapital i ukloniti kapitalizam i preuzimanjem nadzora nad razvitkom i uporabom tehnologije koju ne stvara kapital, nego ljudi svojim znanjem i izumiteljstvom.

Jedna od poraznih posljedica velike nagomilanosti i potpune slobode kapitala su neujednačena podjela dohotka i bogatstva među narodima i unutar naroda. Sloboda i proizvoljnost kapitala otkrivaju rasizam kapitala. Zemlje s razvijenim tržištima su jedno, a zemlje koje obiluju prirodnim blagom su drugo. Dobro plaćeni stručnjaci, zabavljači ili sportaši putem kojih se gomila slobodan kapital u svim narodima su jedno, a drugo su slabo plaćeni radnici koji svojim oskudnim dohotkom stvaraju malu potražnju na tržištu. Podjele među narodima i u narodima učinile su svijet nezaštićenim i opasnim mjestom. Pravednost nije suvišna riječ. Pravednost u obrazovanju, poslovanju, ulaganju te u nagrađivanju znanja i rada stvara svijet mirnijim, a vrstu zaštićenijom. Kapital će morati prihvatiti pravednost u svojem odnosu s vrstom, koja je globalizirana i koja od sitnih ljudskih sila može stvoriti jaku i prijeteću skupnu životnu silu.

Vrsta Homo sapiens treba čišću i uredniju Zemlju. Ona treba više života u sebi i oko sebe odnosno u biomu. Vrsta hitno treba zaustavljanje pogoršavanja i poboljšavanje klime. Zadovoljavanje tih potreba vrste treba zamijeniti ispunjavanje prohtjeva kapitala, koji ide samo za gospodarskim rastom i za daljnjom samomnožidbom. Vrsta i njezini narodi trebaju ukrotiti kapital i učiniti ga odgovornim. Kapital ne treba vezati samo uz prostor i rad, nego i uz Zemlju, život na njoj i uz klimu. Vezani kapital je dobar i koristan kapital. Slobodan kapital je zlo. Sloboda kapitala je sužanjstvo vrste. Vrsta se treba otresti kapitala i treba ukloniti kapitalizam, kako bi se u njoj popravilo zdravlje i kako bi se u nju vratio život. Globalizirana vrsta ima veliku životnu silu. Dosta je strahopoštovanja prema kapitalu!

Pandemija koronavirusa zaoštrila je pitanje opstanka vrste Homo sapiens. (Nedavno se u Indiji pojavio soj koronavirusa, koji je pretrpio tri istovremene mutacije. U SAD u jednom domu umirovljenika nedavno su se zarazili štićenici, koji su bili cijepljeni očito početkom ove godine. Zarazu je unio jedan necijepljeni zaposlenik doma.) Nije isključeno da bi vrsta Coronavirinae mogla nadjačati i sa Zemlje ukloniti vrstu Homo sapiens. Soga se naša vrsta treba braniti od navale koronavirusa, ali kapitalizam nije politički i gospodarski sustav, iz kojega bi se vrsta mogla suprotstavljati pandemijama. Kapitalizam je namnožio vrstu, stjerao ju je u goleme, višemilijunske gradove (Tokyo, Mumbai, Grad Meksiko) te stijesnio ljude uz životinje, koje nose viruse, ali koje su na njih otporne.

Vrsta će morati ulagati golema novčana sredstva u suzbijanje pandemija, u traženje cjepiva i lijekova, u životno znanje ljudi, u odgoj ljudi za suživot s virusima, u znanost i novu tehnologiju te u proizvodnju novih dobara potrebnih zdravstvenom sustavu i zdravstvenim radnicima. Vrsta će morati stvoriti svjetski zdravstveni sustav. Sad su vrsta, narodi i države dužnici, a kapitalisti su vjerovnici. Takav odnos je neprihvatljiv za vrstu. Stoga sav slobodni kapital treba vezati uz vrstu, narode, ljude i zdravlje ljudi. Pandemija koronavirusa je pokazala, da je kapitalizam iznevjerio vrstu, jer kapital ne želi i ne može preuzeti odgovornost za Zemlju, život i za našu vrstu. Kapitalizam je napravio veleizdaju vrste, a vrsta sad uistinu treba novac. Nagomilani novac treba ili porezom uzeti kapitalistima ili ga treba obezvrijediti stalnom državnom emisijom novca za potrebe Zemlje i života. (Tako je postupila Francuska 1945. i 1946. godine, kad je konfiscirala imovinu i poduzeća kolaboracionista te prekomjerno emitiranim novcem vratila sve unutarnje državne dugove.) Vrsta je u ratu i još će dugo biti u ratu protiv virusa pa mora imati ratni porezni sustav.

Sažeto rečeno, nacionalne države mogu i moraju (1) spriječiti mogućnost daljnjeg gomilanja privatnog kapitala, (2) oduzeti kapitalu slobodu kolanja, (3) uzeti slobodu svjetskom tržištu, (4) preuzeti razvijanje tehnologije i uspostavu nove, čiste energetike i industrije, (5) presudno smanjiti razlike u dohotku i bogatstvu naroda i ljudi unutar naroda te (6) uložiti golemo bogatstvo u čišćenje Zemlje, obnovu života na njoj, u poboljšavanje klime i u oporavak tjelesnog i duševnog zdravlja ljudi. Tako će se, kako bi rekla spomenuta slušateljica, „razmontirati“ kapitalizam. Vrsta nema drugo rješenje. Ili kapitalizam ili vrsta!

Prelazak ili tranzicija globalizirane vrste iz kapitalizma kao uzorka civilizacija u politizam kao uzorak zajedništva sračunat je na samozaštitu vrste, a predstavljat će prilagodbu vrste okolnostima koje je ona sama stvorila pod prisilom kapitala. Vrstu prije svega čeka zadaća poboljšavanja sadašnjih okolnosti koje su opasne po život.

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